Aluminium / Aluminum

What is Aluminum?

Aluminum is widely acknowledged as one of the most versatile materials available today. Due mainly to a unique combination of characteristics, there is an aluminum alloy to fit almost any application imaginable.

One of aluminum’s most appealing properties is a high resistance to corrosion due to the natural oxide film that forms when it is exposed to air. Some aluminum alloys are stronger than structural steel, yet all the alloys are light in weight.

Aluminum is nontoxic, which allows it to have direct contact with food products without harmful effects on the body. Because of this characteristic, it is widely used to make cooking utensils, and is very prevalent in equipment for food processing industries

Aluminum is one of two common metals having an electrical conductivity high enough for use as electrical conductors. High thermal conductivity is another feature that promotes widespread use in cooking utensils and heat exchangers. Another very important asset of aluminum is the ease with which it can be fabricated, machined, and joined by almost any method.

Aluminum Wrought Alloys

Non-Heat Treatable Alloys

The initial strength of the non-heat treatable group of alloys depends upon the hardening effects of elements such as manganese, magnesium, silicon, and iron, used singly or in combination. These alloys can be further strengthened only by cold working. Typical uses and characteristics of these alloys are summarized in the following table:

Aluminum Alloy Aluminum Characteristics Aluminum Uses
1100 Excellent corrosion resistance, high thermal and electrical
conductivity, excellent workability, readily welded and
brazed
Chemical equipment, spun hollow ware, decorative parts and
trim, sheet metal work, cooking utensils, heat exchanger fins
1350 Developed especially for electrical conductor use Electrical conductors, coil windings, power transmission systems
3003 General purpose, moderate strength, good workability
and weldability, high resistance to corrosion
Cooking utensils, refrigerator panels, chemical equipment,
general sheet metal work, eyelet stock, gasoline tanks, heat
exchangers, storage tanks
5005 Moderate to high strength, good welding properties, good
corrosion resistance, forms easily, excellent for anodizing
since it exhibits less tendency to structural streaking
Appliances, insulation jacketing, cooking utensils, chemical
equipment, small boats
5052 Excellent resistance to salt water corrosion, good
weldability and workability, higher strength than 1100
or 3003 alloys, good finishing characteristics
Home appliances, chemical drums, truck and bus bodies, small
boats, sheet metal parts, kitchen cabinets, fencing, fan blades,
tank cars and trailers
5086 Good forming properties, excellent corrosion resistance
in marine environments, excellent weldability, stronger
than 5052
Shipyard plate, tanks, unfired welded pressure vessels, auto
aircraft cryogenics, drilling rigs

Temper Designations for the Non-Heat Treatable Alloys

Temper designations for non-heat treatable alloys are indicated by suffixes to the alloy number as follows:

F As fabricated
O Annealed
H Strain hardened

The letter “H” is always followed by 2 or 3 digits. The first digit indicates the particular method used to obtain the temper, as follows:

H1 Strain hardened only
H2 Strain hardened, then partially annealed
H2 Strain hardened, then stabilized

The temper is indicated by the second digit. For instance:

HX2 1/4 hard
HX4 1/2 hard
HX6 3/4 hard
HX8 full hard
HX9 extra hard

The third digit, when used, indicates a variation of a two-digit temper. It is used when the degree of control of temper or the mechanical properties or both differ from, but are close to, that (or those) for the two-digit H temper designation to which it is added, or when some other characteristic is significantly affected. NOTE: The minimum ultimate tensile strength of a three-digit H temper must be at least as close to that of the corresponding two-digit H temper as it is to the adjacent two-digit H tempers. Products in the H temper whose mechanical properties are below H_1 shall be variations of H_1.

Heat Treatable Alloys

The initial strength of the heat treatable group of alloys is heightened by the addition of elements such as copper, zinc, silicon, and magnesium, used singly or in combination. These alloys may be further strengthened by a suitable thermal treatment. Typical uses and characteristics of these alloys are summarized in the following table:

Aluminum Alloy Aluminum Characteristics Aluminum Uses
2011 Aluminum Good machinability, good mechanical properties, excellent free-
cutting properties
Screw machine products, tube fittings, pipe
stems, atomizer and hose parts
2017 Aluminum Stronger than 2011, fair workability and corrosion resistance, good
machinability
Screw machine products, rivets, fasteners,
aircraft components
2024 Aluminum High strength, formability and workability is fair, may be spot
welded
Aircraft parts, truck wheels, scientific
instruments, veterinary and orthopedic braces
and equipment
2024 ALCLAD Aluminum Cladding provides superior corrosion resistance, good appearance Aircraft frames and skins, washers, truck bodies,
railroad car roofs and sides
6013 Aluminum This alloy features B-rated machinability along with improved
tensile properties
Applications that require improved machinability
over 6061 alloys
6020 Aluminum A lead free alloy with A-rated machinability. High mechanical
properties, excellent anodizing response, excellent corrosion
resistance, good brazability and weldability
Screw machine parts
6061 Aluminum One of the most versatile of heat-treatable alloys, good formability
and high resistance to corrosion, medium strength relative to 2000
or 7000 alloys
Truck and bus bodies, sailboats, canoes,
transmission towers, chemical equipment, paper
and textile rolls
6063 Aluminum High corrosion resistance, medium strength, good natural finish Irrigation pipe, store fronts, architectural trim,
pipe railing, furniture
6101 Aluminum Excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, used for electrical
conductors
High strength bus conductors
6262 Aluminum Excellent machinability, good resistance to corrosion, readily
welded, good finishing characteristics
Screw machine products, camera parts, fittings,
nuts, couplings
7050 Aluminum This alloy retains its strength in thicker sections while maintaining
good corrosion resistance and toughness
Aircraft applications including fuselage frames
and bulkheads
7075 Aluminum One of the strongest and hardest alloys available, good machin-
ability, fair corrosion resistance, excellent finishing characteristics
Aircraft, ordnance, keys, small gears
7075 ALCLAD Aluminum Provides strength of 7075 with superior corrosion resistance from
cladding
Aerospace applications requiring maximum
corrosion resistance, skis

Temper Designations for the Heat Treatable Alloys

These alloys can be heat treated to produce stable tempers other than F, O, or H and are designated as follows:

T3 Solution heat treated, then cold worked
T351 Solution heat treated, naturally aged, stretcher stress relieved
T4 Solution heat treated and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition
T6 Solution heat treated, then artificially aged
T42 Solution heat treated from the O or F temper to demonstrate response to heat treatment, and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition
T62 Solution heat treated from the O or F temper to demonstrate response to heat treatment, and artificially aged
T651, T751 Stress relieved by stretching
T9 Solution heat treated, artificially aged, and then cold worked

Aluminum Chemical Compositions

This table contains the chemical composition limits of wrought aluminum alloys in percent by weight maximum unless shown as a range or minimum. Except for “aluminum” and “others, ” analysis normally is made for elements for which specific limits are shown. For purposes of determining conformance to these limits, an observed value or a calculated value obtained from analysis is rounded off to the nearest unit in the last right-hand place of figures used in expressing the specified limit, in accordance with ASTM Recommended Practice E29.

Aluminum Alloy

Silicon

Iron

Copper

Manganese

Magnesium

Chromium

Zinc

Titanium

Others(1)

Aluminum

Each(2)

Total(3)

Min.(4)

1100 Aluminum

0.95 Si + Fe

0.05

– 0.20

0.05

0.10

0.05(5)

0.15

99.00

2011 Aluminum

0.40

0.7

5.0

– 6.0

0.30

0.05(6)

0.15

Remainder

2014 Aluminum

0.50 – 1.2

0.7

3.9

– 5.0

0.40 – 1.2

0.20 – 0.8

0.10

0.25

0.15

0.05

0.15

Remainder

2017 Aluminum

0.20 – 0.8

0.7

3.5

– 4.5

0.40 – 1.0

0.40 – 0.8

0.10

0.25

0.15

0.05

0.15

Remainder

2024 Aluminum

0.50

0.50

3.8

– 4.9

0.30 – 0.9

1.2 – 1.8

0.10

0.25

0.15

0.05

0.15

Remainder

3003 Aluminum

0.6

0.7

0.05

– 0.20

1.0 – 1.5

0.10

0.05

0.15

Remainder

5005 Aluminum

0.30

0.7

0.20

0.20

0.50 – 1.1

0.10

0.25

0.05

0.15

Remainder

5052 Aluminum

0.25

0.40

0.10

0.10

2.2 – 2.8

0.15 – 0.35

0.10

0.05

0.15

Remainder

5083 Aluminum

0.40

0.40

.10

0.4 – 1.0

4.0 – 4.9

0.05 –0.25

0.25

0.15

0.05

0.15

Remainder

5086 Aluminum

0.40

0.50

0.10

0.20 – 0.7

3.5 – 4.5

0.05 – 0.25

.025

0.15

0.05

0.15

Remainder

6013 Aluminum

0.6 – 1.0

0.50

0.6

– 1.1

0.20 – 0.80

0.8 – 1.2

0.10

0.25

0.10

0.05

0.15

Remainder

6020 Aluminum

0.4 – 0.9

0.50

0.3

– 0.9

0.35

0.6 – 1.2

0.15

.20

0.15

0.05

0.15

Remainder

6061 Aluminum

0.40 – 0.8

0.7

0.15

– 0.40

0.15

0.8 – 1.2

0.04 – 0.35

0.25

0.15

0.05

0.15

Remainder

6063 Aluminum

0.20 – 0.6

0.35

0.10

0.10

0.45 – 0.9

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.05

0.15

Remainder

6101(8) Aluminum

0.30 – 0.7

0.50

0.10

0.03

0.35 – 0.8

0.03

0.10

0.03(9)

0.10

Remainder

6262 Aluminum

0.40 – 0.8

0.7

0.15

– 0.40

0.15

0.8 – 1.2

0.04 – 0.14

0.25

0.15

0.05(10)

0.15

Remainder

7050 Aluminum

0.12

0.15

2.0

– 2.6

0.10

1.9 – 2.6

0.04

5.7 – 6.7

0.06

0.05(12)

0.15

Remainder

7075 Aluminum

0.40

0.50

1.2

– 2.0

0.30

2.1 – 2.9

0.18 – 0.28

5.1 – 6.1

0.20

0.05

0.15

Remainder

Notes:
(1)Includes listed elements for which no specific limit is shown.
(2)A .0008 weight percent maximum beryllium is applicable to any alloy to be used as welding electrode or welding rod.
(3)The sum of those “others” metallic elements 0.010 percent or more each, expressed to the second decimal before determining the sum.
(4)The aluminum content for unalloyed aluminum not made by a refining process is the difference between 100.00 percent and the sum of all other metallic elements present in amounts of 0.010 percent or more each, expressed to the second decimal before determining the sum.
(5)Beryllium 0.0008 maximum for welding electrode and welding rod only.
(6)Also contains 0.20 to 0.6 percent each of lead and bismuth.
(7)Gallium 0.03 percent maximum; vanadium 0.05 percent maximum.
(8)Bus conductor.
(9)Boron 0.06 percent maximum.
(10)Also contains 0.40 to 0.7 percent each of lead and bismuth.
(11)Also contains 0.10 to 0.16 percent of zirconium.
(12)Also contains 0.08 to 0.15 percent of zirconium.

Aluminum Typical Physical Properties

The following typical properties are not guaranteed since in most cases they are averages for various sizes, product forms, and methods of manufacture and may not be exactly representative of any particular product or size. These data are intended only as a basis for comparing alloys and tempers and should not be specified as engineering requirements or used for design purposes.

Aluminum Alloy Density Lb/In3  Average (1) Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 68 to 212°F x 10-6 per °F Melting Range (2, 3) Approximate °F Temper Thermal Conductivity at 77°F Btu/Ft/Ft2/Hr/°F Electrical Conductivity at 68°F Percent of International Annealed Copper Standard Electrical Resistivity at 68°F Ohms-Cir Mil/Ft
Equal Volume Equal Weight
Non-Heat Treatable

1100 Aluminum

.098

13.1

1190 – 1215

0

128

59

194

18

 

 

 

 

H18

125

57

187

18

3003 Aluminum

.099

12.9

1190 – 1210

0

112

50

163

21

 

 

 

 

H12

94

42

137

25

 

 

 

 

H14

92

41

134

25

 

 

 

 

H18

89

40

130

26

5005 Aluminum

.098

13.2

1170 – 1210

All

116

52

172

20

5052 Aluminum

.097

13.2

1125 – 1200

All

80

35

116

30

5083 Aluminum

.096

13.2

1095 – 1180

0

81

29

98

36

5086 Aluminum

.096

13.2

1085 – 1185

All

73

31

104

33

Heat Treatable

2011 Aluminum

.102

12.7

1005 – 1190(5)

T3

88

39

123

27

 

 

 

 

T8

99

45

142

23

2014 Aluminum

.101

12.8

945 – 1180(4)

0

112

50

159

21

 

 

 

 

T4

78

34

108

31

 

 

 

 

T6

89

40

127

26

2017 Aluminum

.101

13.1

955 – 1185(4)

0

112

50

159

21

 

 

 

 

T4

76

34

108

31

2024 Aluminum

.100

12.9

935 – 1180(4)

0

112

50

160

21

 

 

 

 

T3, T4, T361

70

30

96

35

 

 

 

 

T6, T81, T861

88

38

122

27

6013 Aluminum

.098

13.0

 

T651

95

 

 

 

6020 Aluminum

.098

13.2

 

T8, T9

 

 

 

 

6061 Aluminum

.098

13.1

1080 – 1205(5)

0

104

47

155

22

 

 

 

 

T4

89

40

132

26

 

 

 

 

T6

96

43

142

24

6063 Aluminum

.097

13.0

1140 – 1210

0

126

58

191

18

 

 

 

 

T1

112

50

165

21

 

 

 

 

T5

121

55

181

19

 

 

 

 

T6, T83

116

53

175

20

6101 Aluminum

.097

13.0

1150 – 1210

T6

126

57

188

18

 

 

 

 

T61

128

59

194

18

 

 

 

 

T63

126

58

191

18

 

 

 

 

T64

131

60

198

17

 

 

 

 

T65

126

58

191

18

7075 Aluminum

.101

13.1

890 – 1175(6)

T6

75

33

105

31

Reference Thyssenkrupp (delivering Aluminum materials and supply chain solutions to aerospace companies throughout the Americas, Asia Pacific, Europe and North Africa)